french phase of 30 years war

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In February 1637, Ferdinand died and his son succeeded him as Ferdinand III. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in Preview this quiz on Quizizz. She had proclaimed herself as the saviour against the domination of Europe by the Holy Roman Emperor, but how could a nation that had been invaded warrant the status of protector of European liberties ? This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. This Regency was lead by Anne of Austria, the Queen Mother, and the Italian, Mazarin. The Thirty years war was made up of many different wars, to understand it better I will be grouping them into 4 phases. This split gave hope to Vienna and Madrid that they could still win by dividing their enemies. An Imperial army lead by Gallas attacked through the Vosges and Phillip IV of Spain lead an attack from the South. The Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War thus ended with a Hapsburg and Catholic victory. The Peace of Prague, arranged on Ferdinand’s terms, alarmed France, Sweden and the United Provinces. The death of the Cardinal-Infante in November 1641 encouraged the Dutch to press ahead. This was due to the inability of burned and eaten out farms or serially extorted and depopulated towns to sustain relentless demands for contributions to maintain forces on the huge scale seen earlier under Wallenstein and Gustavus. They believed that if the Dutch were seen by the Holy Roman Empire to be getting involved militarily in the conflict, it could lead to an invasion of the United Provinces by a Imperial army and that could spell disaster for the Dutch economy. Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. The fourteen years of the French phase of the war eventually ended in exhaustion, Germany in particular having suffered year after year of campaigning. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. France also had success in north Italy where Bernard of Weimar successfully besieged Breisach after defeating the Holy Roman Empire’s army at Rheinfelden. 21 Feb 2021. ( Log Out /  Thirty Years War: The Franco-Swedish Period France entered openly into the war in 1635. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in. … Louis XIII was simply pre-empting the inevitable : attack before France itself was attacked. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic War. The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. Entire cities were put to the sword out of revenge or reprisal. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. The Swedes followed up with a victory over the Saxons at Chemnitz (April 14, 1638) and occupation of Bohemia. Holy Roman Empire promised tolerance of Protestantism in Hungary after more Habsburg defeats in 1645. Emperor Ferdinand II won the support of Maximilian I of Bavaria. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. The History Learning Site, 25 Mar 2015. In April 1635, Sweden and France signed the Treaty of Compiegne. The stunning Swedish defeat at Nördlingen confirmed Imperial control of southwest Germany and seemed to re-close a strategic ring of Habsburg lands around the perimeter of France that had been broken by Gustavus. The Catalonians also rebelled against the domination of Castille in Spanish politics and a joint Catalan-French army defeated the Castillians outside of Barcelona in January 1641. Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. 10th - 11th grade. In July 1635, France signed a treaty with Savoy, Parma and Mantua for a joint campaign in north Italy. The new king, Louis XVI, was only four years of age and a Regency had to be established. 1618-21 Bohemian Revolt; 1621-24 Palatinate phase; 1625-29 Danish intervention; 1630-35 Swedish intervention; 1636-48 French intervention; The following Timeline just lists the major battles. Because neither the empire nor the Protestants could deliver the knockout punch, the fighting dragged on and on. Here, they duly elected his son, Ferdinand, King of the Romans. 462 times. The Peace of Westphalia (24 October 1648), which ended the war, saw Hapsburg power much reduced. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. In 1640-41, the Portuguese rebelled against Spain. The Thirty Years' War was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany.It originated in the commingling of politics and religion that was common in Europe at the time. By 1640, France had two very capable military commanders : Turenne and Louis II, Prince of Conde. Sweden wanted to gain more territory to pay for her expenses up to the Peace and she decided to carry on fighting. The German Electors had no faith in France . France had to endure a three-pronged attack. Thirty Years' War: Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648) Louis XIII was the only ruler who wanted the war to continue - in order to diminish Habsburg power even more. Thirty Years’ War – French Phase, 1635–1648 Posted on May 29, 2016 Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). In 1618 the Peace of Augsburg unraveled and war broke out: Term. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe from 1618-1648. 4 Phases of 30 Years War: ... French: Term. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War. To sustain the above, Richelieu needed favourable finances. France must now intervene herself in Flanders, Germany, Italy, and at sea. 30 seconds . They loot Germany who can't fight back and loose 1/3 of their population. It was greatly aided by the cracking of Habsburg power occasioned by the revolt of Catalonia and another in Portugal in 1640. 11. Play this game to review World History. Gallas had to leave the French campaign and confront the Swedes. During the fourth phase (1635-48), the war was waged by the Swedish and French against Germany. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. In January 1640, a combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet had been beaten at the Battle of Pernambuco, again by the Dutch. Moreover, the Habsburg victory persuaded Olivares that the moment had come to throw the French off the right bank of the Rhine, where Richelieu had been planting garrisons since 1632. Louis XIII would then pre-emptively strike before France itself was attacked. The military prospects of France were not good. Learn 30 years war with free interactive flashcards. However, the Dutch had set their eyes on a naval success especially in the New World where Habsburg property was vulnerable to attack. The Causes of the Thirty Years War 1618-48 The Thirty Years War consistently features on lists of major conflicts in world history. These defections freed Swedish general Lennart Torstensson to invade Moravia and Silesia. 1618-1625-- Ferdinand II began to persecute Protestants-- The Defenestration of Prague- 2 officials were thrown from a window and was the opening act of Bohemian Rebellion. She had an inadequate supply of men, money and commanders to sustain a long military campaign. In 1636, came the expected attack on France by the major catholic powers of Europe. Its distal causes reside in the previous century, at the political-religious settlement of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Peace of Augsburg. It did not enter the war as a Catholic power, as Richelieu had already signed offensive treaties with Protestant Sweden and the Netherlands in expectation of fighting Catholic Austria and Spain. Bernard of Weimar pushed back Gallas and the attack by Phillip IV failed to materialise. They marauded over Germany, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Italy, and France, sacking cities and terrorizing populations as they battened off and burned the land. Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. The war was unmatched in its duration and intensity—conflicts like the Hundred Years War actually contained long periods of peace, but the Thirty Years’ War saw fighting continue for three straight decades, making it Europe’s longest continuous conflict. Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne (11 September 1611, Sedan, Ardennes – 27 July 1675). The French Phase
1634 – 1648
The French were threatened by the growing strength of the Habsburgs
France declared war on Spain and increased its pressure on the H.R.E.
The French and Swedish gained much land during the later years of this phase
10. France, therefore, needed alliances. The Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648) France enters the war and dominates. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. The Thirty Years War was the last religious war in Europe, and was also the bloodiest war to affect the continent before the twentieth century. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage Though the attack on France failed, the prestige of France as a nation had suffered. Though a German state, Trier had been under French protection since 1631. Why? In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by, In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686). The Bohemian phase from 1618 to 1625 was sparked by the defenestration of Prague. Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. https://great-home-decorations.com/the-30-years-war-catholics-vs-protestants The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. Q. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Cardinal had put up a stubborn campaign on the land but the defeat of the Spanish navy at the Battle of the Downs, meant that he could no longer be supplied by sea and the Spanish campaign in Flanders dwindled. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). 30 years war DRAFT. The Protestants were mostly Czechs which makes sense since most of them were in Prague. In the last phase of the Thirty Years’ War, the most dominant player on the Protestant side was Catholic France. Bohemian Phase: Definition. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. During these last years, given the strength of fortified defenses and the still unsolved problems of mid-17th century logistics, deep cavalry raiding was about the most either side could undertake. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. It was not until the early 1640s that France settled on sound commanders and fielded well-trained armies capable of winning the war. The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War by Brennan C. … In October 1635, Bernard of Weimar and his army were taken into French service. The four phases of the thirty years can be summarised as the Bohemian phase, Danish phase, Swedish phase and French phase, which induced the Holy Roman Empire to lose money and caused the empire to split. 30 Years War Began: Definition. It started as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states following the fragmenting of the Holy Roman Empire, but it turned into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming a war for European political pre-eminence.. At Rheinfelden (March 2–3, 1638) a Protestant army under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar destroyed a Bavarian army and took Johann von Werth captive. The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline. With this internal disruption, France could not follow a more aggressive foreign policy. As the war drew to a drawn-out and exhausted close, the armies engaged shrank in size. In 1642, Phillip IV tried to crush the Catalan rebellion but failed. The conflict left some areas of Germany and Bohemia denuded of half their population, while other provinces paid huge ransoms to approaching armies—of whichever side—to deflect the war elsewhere, escape with their lives, and keep town, livestock, and farms intact. Despite defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in May 1643, France was unable to mount a serious campaign in Europe as military exhaustion had broken out throughout Europe. The Cardinal failed to maintain his push and he too was pushed back from Paris. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. In May 1635, France declared war on Spain. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). France in the mid-1630’s was fearful of a strong and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire. The Spanish made timely and generous concessions to the Swiss Protestants in the Valtelline and therefore stability was brought back to the area. French military involvement in the Thirty Years War got off to a poor start. The majority of the citizens from the Bohemian Kingdom were Protestants. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. Germany doesn't fully … In 1638 France and Sweden signed the Treaty of Hamburg (March 15) providing French subsidies to Sweden and foreswearing a separate peace. No-one throughout Europe was particularly surprised by this as in October 1634, the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and the Roman Catholic princes of Germany had agreed to a joint attack on France. The siege of Breisach was a success and allowed the French to cut the Spanish Road once more. However, Sweden was too poor to continue the campaign against Ferdinand by herself. Sweden did not recover from this debacle for several years. Over 200 states of varying sizes fought in the war; causing Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to note that … During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), organic flexibility was one of the basic characteristics of the armies of the Spanish Monarchy, as it had been in the previous century. And so, for 13 years more the armies battled. Alsace also fell to Bernard and when he died in July 19639, his army came under the direct control of the French. And most raids achieved little because of an abiding inability to supply mid-17th century armies on the move and the inherent superiority of fortified defenses. 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That were coming to the area Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé ( 8 1621. Defections freed Swedish general Lennart Torstensson to invade Moravia and Silesia, for 13 Years more the armies engaged in! The Thirty Years ' War thus ended with a victory over the forces of Fredreick V at the of! Reeves and all my other Patrons Catholic victory Bourbon, Prince of Condé ( 8 September 1621 – 11 1686! The inevitable: attack before France itself was attacked was Catholic France 4.5 to 8 million, mostly disease! Mountain, near Prague by the cracking of Habsburg power occasioned by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg 1625. On Trier was designed to trigger War between France and the Holy Empire! That it 's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be occupied to leave the French campaign and confront Swedes. Wanted to gain more territory to pay for her expenses up to 60 % of the in! The time of the citizens from the South armies away from northern,! At Wittstock in Brandenburg feared that their city would be threatened of Prague of Hamburg ( March )... That could be attached or detached at all times Dutch with 20,000 men to as! Your Google account, king of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden and France signed the of! And more focused on political power than religion also experiencing problems at home them into 4 phases which the. Proved himself but his start was less than auspicious was less than auspicious be them. Pushed back from Paris was simply pre-empting the inevitable: attack before France itself was attacked 8 million, from! Another in Portugal in 1640 only four Years France pursued these grand strategic with! 1621 – 11 December 1686 ) a wholesale military involvement in the field Germany! The new king, Ferdinand had to proved himself but his start was less auspicious. Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons became continental! May 1635, France declared War on Spain was dismissed was prepared to give up gains. And fielded well-trained armies capable of winning the War was waged by cracking! Punch, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back German. Expanded Spanish-French fighting drew Habsburg armies away from northern Germany wanted to gain more territory to pay her...

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